Ozone Ozonation Things to do with Ozone

Ozone is incredible, many things can be done with ozone.

Wednesday, January 16, 2008

Ozone protects against superbugs

A nursing home in Suffolk is using a new natural oxygen-based disinfectant to counter the threat of superbugs.

Foxearth Nursing Home, near Woodbridge, has established new laundry systems using ozone - a natural disinfectant.

It is said by hygiene and microbiology experts to be very effective against C Difficile and MRSA infections.

James Cantrell, home manager, said the new system gives them a great deal of confidence and it uses natural and freely available materials like oxygen.

"The new system uses ozone which is well known as a powerful disinfectant.

"Oxygen is pulled in from the surrounding air and is turned into ozone which is then put into the water in the washing machines.

"The result is that everything being laundered becomes sterile so residents are more protected from infections."


Wednesday, December 26, 2007

Ozone Uses and History

Uses of ozone

Perhaps you are a smoker or live with someone who smokes or maybe work with people who do. That is a worrying scenario as cigarette smoke has over 3,600 chemicals. Ozone will break those chemicals down into their basic molecular components, neutralizing them. It is capable of destroying tar, soot and oil in the lungs, benzene, vinyl chloride and other hydrocarbons. Having performed this task the ozone itself reverts to just plain oxygen!

Dr. Clark regularly warns about the dangers of airborne gasses such as formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, and chemical pollutants given off by carpets, wallpaper, and furniture.

Take for example formaldehyde. When formaldehyde is infiltrated by ozone it breaks down into carbon dioxide, water and oxygen. Well worth bearing in mind if you have pollutants in your house or workplace like these that you are not in a position to remove.

Carbon monoxide is a lethal gas and cannot be detected easily. It bonds with human blood 600 times faster than oxygen. Ozone changes carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, a harmless gas. Solvents from fresh paint are instantly neutralized by ozone as are cooking smells, animal odours, cigarette smoke, garbage smells and mildew, etc.

Perfume can be intolerable for people suffering chemical insensitivity. An ozonator may be the answer.

In some countries people wear tiny ozone generators around their neck just for this reason – to neutralize pollutants, perhaps on a journey through heavily polluted areas. Bacteria, molds, fungi and even mildew are destroyed when they react with ozone as the outer membranes or ‘shells’ of these micro-organisms contain receptors that absorb ozone to their own demise. They are anaerobic, meaning that they can thrive only where oxygen levels are depleted. Ozone increases oxygen levels. Viruses can also be destroyed by ozone on contact.

In the case of polio only 0.012ppm removes all viral cells in seconds. As you know there isn’t an effective antibiotic that will touch a virus. Ozone is a particularly safe therapy to use provided that certain restrictions are respected.

The Food and Drug Administration declares 0.05ppm as the safe level for 24 hour a day inhalation in the USA. However, natural outdoor levels vary between 0.03 and 0.05ppm and go several times higher than this at times and in certain ideal locations can reach 0.65ppm, so nature then breaks the FDA’s rulings! Even at these higher rates no harm has been caused, in fact the opposite is the case.

In cleaning water, ozone is more efficient even than chlorine, in fact an ozone level of 0.04ppm in just 4 minutes has been shown to kill bacteria, mold and fungus. Giardia and Cryptosporidium cysts are susceptible to ozone but are unaffected by normal levels of chlorine in water. Ozone is 25 times more effective than hypochlorous acid, 2,500 times more effective than hypochlorite, and 5,000 times more than chloramine. (Results measured by the time needed to kill 99.99% of all micro-organisms). Chlorine reacts with organic materials to form chloroform, carbon tetrachloride etc generally known as trihalomethanes. These have been implicated as carcinogens in the development of kidney, bladder and colon cancer. However, ozone when used repeatedly and in conjunction with charcoal, reacts with organic materials to break them down into simpler compounds that are not dangerous.

Ozone swimming pool cleaners are very popular and one of the reasons is that when water is ozonated, algae is oxidized and floats to the top, metabolic by products of algae are oxidized also, removing odour and taste. So cleaning the pool is not such a frequent or time-consuming job, chemicals are not required and the water is smelling good and clean (…just makes you want to jump in).

In cleaning the air, ozone reacts with odours oxidizing them into harmless compounds or carbon dioxide. We would have sufficient ozone but all the chemical gasses released into the atmosphere by cars and factories are using it up. Surely oxygen generators would be sufficient? Well, ozone is approximately 3,500 times more potent an oxidant than oxygen. High mountain areas produce high levels of ozone. This is why people with respiratory problems, TB etc. were sent to such areas.

As with anything i.e. oxygen, water etc. too much can be harmful, (although ozone is an incredibly safe gas and consistently spoken of as the safest therapy, non toxic and with no evidence of free radical damage) yet none has ever died from using ozone and it has been in use for many years. Only chronic high overdose may give problems and then there would be warning symptoms such as coughing for more than 30 minutes continuously. At such times Vitamin C (5,000mg) – an antagonist of ozone – can reverse the effect.

The history of ozone therapy

Over 1000 scientific papers have been written about ozone and its benefits. The first ozone generators were developed by Werner von Siemens in Germany in 1857. In 1870 ozone was used therapeutically to purify blood by C. Lender in Germany. Today there are over 3,000 places around the world using ozone to clean their water and sewage. In 1885 The Florida Medical Association published ‘Ozone’ by Dr. Charles J. Kenworth, MD, detailing the use of ozone for therapeutic purposes.

In 1896 Nikola Tesla patented his first ozone generator and went on to form a company selling ozone machines to doctors. Tesla also made ozonated olive oil and sold it to naturopaths, just as we do today. Some of Tesla's generators are still working today.

In 1902 J. H. Clark published a Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica (London) and described the successful use of ozonating water to treat anaemia, diabetes, influenza, morphine poisoning, canker sores, strychnine poisoning, and whooping cough.

Just a few years later ozone was used to treat Tuberculosis, anaemia, chlorosis, tinnitus, asthma, bronchitis, hay fever, pneumonia, gout and syphilis.

In World War I ozone was used to treat gangrene, the effects of poison gas and wounds. In 1915 Dr. A. Wolff used it to treat colon cancer and cervical cancer. But one man we may have all heard of is Dr. Otto Warberg of the Kaiser Institute in Berlin. In 1926 he announced that the cause of cancer is a lack of oxygen at the cellular level. He went on to become the only man to receive two Nobel Prizes for Medicine and be nominated for a third.

Dr. Wendell Hendricks wrote „cancer is a condition within the body where the oxidation has become so depleted that body cells have degenerated beyond control, the body is so overloaded with poisons that it sets up a tumor mass to harbour these poisons and remove them from general activity within the body”. Very similar to Dr. Clark’s views.

In fact very recently Dr. Clark has said that to remove PCBs from the body – the fourth immune reducing factor in cancer patients – we need to take 2 tablespoons of ozonated olive oil three times a day for 2-3 weeks.

So ozone has quite a history and is well established as a successful therapy with over 7,000 German doctors using it daily and Russian doctors even bubbling it into brine for use on burn victims.
Uses of ozone at home

To get back to uses within the home setting, ozone used for cleaning fruit and vegetables has an interesting side effect because ethylene given off by fruit accelerates the ripening process, however, ozone reacts with ethylene reducing rapid ripening and thereby extending shelf life (Grocers note!).

Regular use of ozone in the home can ensure high levels of immunity from most common diseases. Some state that ozonating water removes fluorine too.

It is comforting to know that breathing the ozone bubbled through olive oil or water when using Dr. Clark’s recipes is not only safe but beneficial. Some recommend this for respiratory diseases such as bronchitis, asthma etc.

If olive oil is ozonated for several weeks the oil will start to change, it foams and becomes a gel. If kept in a refrigerator this oil holds onto its ozone for up to 10 years and can be used as required on cuts, all skin complaints, burns, bites, herpes and as a lubricant when required in this setting. This gel is 95% as active as ozone gas.

As this gas cleans up your body the immune system responds, arteries are cleaned, veins also, circulation improves with blood vessels unclogged, blood and lymph normalizes, inflammation reduces, bleeding stops, cardiac problems reduce as plaque is oxidized in arteries (such patients are often dependent upon oxygen tanks throughout the day), the brain and memory respond to the increases in oxygen produced, heavy metals are chelated, tumor metabolism is inhibited and the outer lipid layer of malignant cells is broken down and destroyed.

Successful use of this therapy has been found with gangrene of the fingers and toes and with destroying the viruses that causes hepatitis. Many doctors are using it internally via rectum, vagina, mouth and ear. Some specialists inject it straight into the tumor, into the portal vein for the liver or into the arm.

There are ozone body suits that you can step into following a hot bath, so as to get it into the skin – referred to by nutritionists as the third kidney.

Dr. Michael Carpendale wrote an article in Science magazine (Vol. 209 22 August 1980) and stated that the growth of human cancer cells from lung, breast and uterine cancers were selectively inhibited in a dose dependent manner by ozone at 0.3ppm to 0.8ppm in ambient air during 8 days of culture. Exposure to ozone at 0.8ppm inhibited cancer cell growth more than 90%. Evidently the mechanisms for defence against ozone are impaired in human cancer cells.

Today both the FDA and EPA certify ozone as able to destroy 99.9992% of all pathogenic germs in the purification of water whilst destroying 99.9992% of pollutants in the water simultaneously.

Many doctors/therapists are testifying to the effectiveness of ozone with the HIV virus.

I do not believe that there is a disease or health condition that ozone hasn’t been used with, there is no way I could list all the conditions it is successful with, all the cancers, all the bacterial, parasitic diseases etc. Unsolicited testimonials are sited on the Internet and covering such a wide variety of conditions including one of silicon poisoning following leakage from a breast implant!

In recent years we have seen headlines such as ‘Burnt diesel fumes the worst carcinogen’. There are ozonators that you can have in your car plugged into the cigarette lighter (how ironic), household ozonators for water, oil and air, and larger industrial units.

Dr. Hulda Clark uses ozone therapy for different purposes in her therapy:

To eliminate freon from the body, use 1 glass of ozonated water daily. Ozonate water for 5-7 minutes. Drink within 20 seconds of ozonating. To eliminate PCBs from the body, use ozonate olive oil. Ozonate oil for 30 minutes. Take 2 tbs. of ozonated olive oil 3 times daily for 2-3 weeks. PCBs are the fourth factor Dr. Clark has found that inhibits immunity in cancer patients (and other diseases, especially AIDS). It also makes zapping less effective. Much like frankincense oil, ozonated olive oil inhibits virus replication and is especially recommended for HIV virus or other viral conditions. To kill Ascaris and certain tapeworms. Ascaris and dog tapeworms are especially hardy, and when they are killed with the regular herbal program, they decay and release more eggs and stages than the body can handle. Ozonated oil can penetrate their membranes and kill the eggs and stages on the inside before they open up. Take 3 tbs. of ozonated oil per day, for 3 weeks, together with 2 times 3 Cysteine capsules.


Azco Industries Ltd.

Global Change Mater Directory. FAQ.

Oxygen and Ozone Therapies

Wein Air Supply 500B.

The Story of Ozone 6th edition.

Body Language O3 Therapy.

Ozone Discussion Group

Oxygen/Ozone Therapy: The Finchley Clinic.

Family Health News.com

Ozone in Cuba.
Air treatment

Ozone reacts rapidly with most odours, oxidizing them to less harmful elements or all the way to harmless Carbon Dioxide.

More and more of our furnishings and floor coverings are made from synthetic materials. Under the stagnant air conditions which prevail because of the lack of ventilation, decomposition products and solvents leach out of these synthetic materials and fill the indoor space. Much has been said about the "sick building syndrome" and this usually refers to institutional building. But they have basically the same problems as the private home. When odours are inhaled, they increase the demand for oxygen in the human body thus depleting the body of oxygen.

Ozone in natural settings is around 0.02 ppm, but it can be as high as 0.10 ppm. At this level it is capable of keeping pathogens in check and yet at this level ozone is not harmful to higher life forms such as fish, birds, animals or man. Ozone is not causing harm to the nature. Only a prolonged exposure to very unnatural high levels of ozone may lead to discomfort, later headache and coughing, telling you to leave the space and seek better air.

Monday, December 10, 2007

Ozone in Hospitals

Many hospitals in the U.S. and around the world use large ozone generators to decontaminate operating rooms between surgeries. The rooms are cleaned and then sealed airtight before being filled with ozone which effectively kills or neutralizes all remaining bacteria

Industrial applications

At present, the uses of ozone as an industrial chemical are somewhat limited.[5] The largest use of ozone is in the preparation of pharmaceuticals, synthetic lubricants, as well as many other commercially useful organic compounds, where it is used to sever carbon-carbon bonds.[5] It can also be used for bleaching substances and for killing microorganisms in air and water sources. Many municipal drinking water systems kill bacteria with ozone instead of the more common chlorine.[32] Ozone has a very high oxidation potential. Ozone does not form organochlorine compounds, nor does it remain in the water after treatment, so some systems introduce a small amount of chlorine to prevent bacterial growth in the pipes, or may use chlorine intermittently, based on results of periodic testing. Where electrical power is abundant, ozone is a cost-effective method of treating water, as it is produced on demand and does not require transportation and storage of hazardous chemicals. Once it has decayed, it leaves no taste or odor in drinking water. Low levels of ozone have been advertised to be of some disinfectant use in residential homes, however, the concentration of ozone required to have a substantial effect on airborne pathogens greatly exceeds safe levels recommended by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Environmental Protection Agency.[citation needed]

Industrially, ozone or ozonated water is used to:

  • Disinfect laundry in hospitals, food factories, care homes etc;[33]
  • Water disinfectant in place of chlorine[5]
  • Deodorize air and objects, such as after a fire. This process is extensively used in Fabric Restoration;
  • Kill bacteria on food or on contact surfaces;
  • Ozone swimming pool and spa sanitation
  • Scrub yeast and mold spores from the air in food processing plants;
  • Wash fresh fruits and vegetables to kill yeast, mold and bacteria;
  • Chemically attack contaminants in water (iron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, nitrites, and complex organics lumped together as "colour");
  • Provide an aid to flocculation (agglomeration of molecules, which aids in filtration, where the iron and arsenic are removed);
  • Manufacture chemical compounds via chemical synthesis [1]
  • Clean and bleach fabrics (the former use is utilized in Fabric Restoration)(the latter use is patented);
  • Assist in processing plastics to allow adhesion of inks;
  • Age rubber samples to determine the useful life of a batch of rubber;
  • Hospital operating rooms where air needs to be sterile;
  • Eradicate water borne parasites such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium in surface water treatment plants. This process is known as ozonation.

Ozone is a reagent in many organic reactions in the laboratory and in industry. Ozonolysis is the cleavage of an alkene to carbonyl compounds.

Many hospitals in the U.S. and around the world use large ozone generators to decontaminate operating rooms between surgeries. The rooms are cleaned and then sealed airtight before being filled with ozone which effectively kills or neutralizes all remaining bacteria.[citation needed]

Ozone is used as an alternative to chlorine or chlorine dioxide in the bleaching of wood pulp [34] . It is often used in conjunction with oxygen and hydrogen peroxide to completely eliminate the need for chlorine-containing compounds in the manufacture of high-quality, white paper[35]

Ozone can be used to detoxify cyanide wastes (for example from gold and silver mining) by oxidizing cyanide to cyanate and eventually to carbon dioxide.[36]

[edit] Consumer applications

Devices generating high levels of ozone, some of which use ionization, are used to sanitize and deodorize uninhabited buildings, rooms, ductwork, woodsheds, and boats and other vehicles.

In the US, air purifiers emitting lower levels of ozone have been sold. This kind of air purifier is sometimes claimed to imitate nature's way of purifying the air[37] without filters and to sanitize both it and household surfaces. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has declared that there is "evidence to show that at concentrations that do not exceed public health standards, ozone is not effective at removing many odor-causing chemicals" or "viruses, bacteria, mold, or other biological pollutants." Furthermore, its report states that "results of some controlled studies show that concentrations of ozone considerably higher than these [human safety] standards are possible even when a user follows the manufacturer’s operating instructions."[38] The government successfully sued one company in 1995, ordering it to stop repeating health claims without supporting scientific studies.

Ozonated water is used to launder clothes and to sanitize food, drinking water, and surfaces in the home. According to the FDA, it is "amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of ozone in gaseous and aqueous phases as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry." Studies at California Polytechnic University have proven that low levels of ozone dissolved in filtered tapwater can produce a reduction of more than 99.99% in such food-borne microorganisms as salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7, and Campylobacter.[39] Although ozone is considered an atmospheric pollutant by the US government, it can actually decrease levels of other pollutants, like pesticides in fruits and vegetables.[40]

New, patented technology uses ozone to disinfect and deodorize protective sports gear for football, hockey, and lacrosse by blowing it directly into the equipment to destroy bacteria within the padding. This has proven particularly useful in battling the spread of MRSA.[41]

Ozone is used in spas and hot tubs to kill bacteria in the water and to reduce the amount of chlorine or bromine required. As it does not remain in the water long enough, it is ineffective at preventing cross-contamination among bathers and must be used in conjunction with another sanitizer. Gaseous ozone created by ultraviolet light or by corona discharge is injected into the water[citation needed].

Ozone is also widely used in treatment of water in aquariums and fish ponds. Its use can minimize bacterial growth, control parasites, and reduce or eliminate "yellowing" of the water. Because it decomposes rapidly, the ozone has no effect on the fish at properly controlled levels

Saturday, December 01, 2007

Water Ozonator: Things to do

Because of health concerns with allergies, our family discovered the healing power of oxygen several years ago. (Now we continue to boost our bodies with extra oxygen as a preventative. Having our own water ozonator has now made oxygen therapy an everyday thing, right in our own home, at a very affordable price.

You too can have the health benefits of freshly ozonated water in your own home, or office, whenever you need it. Bottled ozonated water is not the same as freshly ozonated water. Bottled water is ozonated to sterilize it, but the ozone (extra oxygen molecule) evaporates within 10-20 minutes, even if the bottle is capped. Furthermore, ozonated water stored in plastic bottles will pick up plastic molecules which of course are actually detrimental to your health! Freshly ozonated water, consumed within 10 minutes of making it, will boost your entire immune system, because the extra molecule of oxygen is still in the water, and available for your body to absorb. When you buy bottled water which has been ozonated, it is indeed sterilized to protect you from pathogens, but the ozone has long since evaporated before it reaches the store shelf, so your body does not get the immune system boost. Ozone will kill all the viruses and bacteria as well as removing all organic compounds and other microorganisms in water.

This unit is portable, and you can take it from home to work (or get one for each place). All you need to do is plug it in, put the ozonator ball diffuser into a glass jar of water, and let it run for 2 minutes. Then, enjoy the fresh taste of ozonated water!

You do not need an oxygen tank to use this machine, as it uses corona discharge to generate ozone from the oxygen that is in the air. The life of the machine during normal usage, is at least 100,000 hours. Since it takes only 2 minutes to ozonate your glass of water, this machine will last a long time.

You can also kill harmful pathogens found on fruits and vegetables by placing them in water and running the ozonator through the water for 5 minutes while you brush and clean them. Fruits and vegetables will keep longer and the taste will be enhanced.

-Weighs less than 2 lbs. 10" long.
- Built-in cooling fan.
-Can be wall-mounted.
-Ozone output: less than 0.05ppm, 200mg/hour
- Timer: 0-30 minute selectable
-1 year warranty.
-Rated voltage 100-120 v, or 220-240v, 60 Hz-
-Rated power 20 W

Other uses:
To sterilize and freshen meat & seafood, and sterilize and crisp your fruits/vegetables: Ozonate a bowl of cool water for 5 minutes. Then put your food items into the ozonated water and let sit for 5 minutes. This will remove the "fishy" smell from seafood, and will help legumes last longer. Ozone reacts with organic and inorganic substances, thus neutralizing ethylene and pesticides and enhancing the taste of food.

Soak dishes/cutlery/cups in ozonated water to kill viruses/bacteria to avoid spreading infection.

To sterilize your toothbrush, soak it for 5 minutes in ozonated water. (Remember that leaving your toothbrush stored in the bathroom, it picks up germs from the air, surface, as well as the bacteria in your mouth!)
Soak your dentures in ozonated water.

To kill bacteria in your bath water, and to let your skin (the body's largest organ) absorb extra oxygen, ozonate your bath water for 10 minutes BEFORE you get into the tub.
* Be sure to keep the machine away from the tub to avoid electical danger!
*Do not run the machine while you are in the tub!
*Run the bathroom fan to remove any off-gases! You should not smell a strong ozone smell-if you are, you are running the machine too long--see "Cautions" section at end.

For athlete's foot/nail fungus/ringworm, ozonate a pan of water for 10 minutes in a well-ventilated area. Then put the pan on the floor by a chair, and soak your feet for 20 minutes. Or for ringworm, soak any affected area.

Use ozonated water for a final cleanse to the skin after removing your make-up. For a truly moisturizing beauty treatment, apply ozonated olive oil (sold separately). Apply ozonated oil before bedtime and leave on all night.

To kill bacteria, deodorize and bleach diapers/stinky socks/underwear, etc, run the ozonator through the water in which the clothes are soaking, for 10 minutes. Ozone neutralizes ammonia (removing urine smell). It will also reduce the amount of skin irritation from the clothing.
You can usually reduce the amount of detergent you use to wash the clothes afterwards.
* Be sure to keep the machine on a dry surface, away from wet surfaces, to avoid electical danger!

Spray your bedding with ozonated water to sanitize it in the morning.

To kill harmful bacteria/algae in a fish tank (no need to remove the fish). Add 1 cup of ozonated water for every 10 gallons of water in the tank. Mix the ozonated water throughout the tank.

Water them with ozonated water to supply extra oxygen, and to kill fungus/mold. They will require less fertilizer.

Eliminate odors, pet scents, molds and mildew from problem areas. Place the machine in the area to be treated and run it for up to 30 minutes. STAY OUT OF THE AREA FOR AN HOUR OR MORE DURING THE TREATMENT PERIOD. See "Cautions" section at end.

Ozone findings:
*Research staff of Medical College of Washington University in the United States discovered that ozone could restrain the growth of cancer cells
*More than 200 US drinking water plants use ozone to treat the water.
*Japan Company testified that ozone is the best vegetable disinfectant. Ozone is used to sterilize the jars before baby food is put in them. The FDA approved ozone in 2001 to kill food borne pathogens by applying it directly to food.
3.China Medical Academy of Science testified that ozone could get rid of gonococcus and decomposes heavy metals in the water.
4. Ozone oxides poisonous materials rapidly; sterilization ability is 600--3000 times stronger than Chlorine. Ozone kills E-coli 3125 times faster than chlorine. Some swimming pools/spas use ozone because it is a strong disinfectant, but converts back into oxygen so does not have the harmful effects like chlorine (which was used as a nerve gas in WWII.)
5. Some washing machine manufacturers are planning to add an ozone generating mechanism to their machines, to increase the dirt, odor, and bacteria removal from laundry.

Ozonated Drinking Water

Ozonated Drinking Water

Ozonated water is highly beneficial for either healthy or sickly people. It's easy to make and should be consumed regularly.

Benefits of Ozonated Drinking Water
- provides more oxygen to the brain (greater alertness and mental clarity)
- oxidize pathogens and synthetics residues in the body, allowing their complete elimination
through excretion.

- increases the oxygen level of cells and accelerates the healing process.

- Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a natural by-product of most ozone oxidizing processes.
Hydrogen peroxide is another great natural alternative for one's health.

How To make Ozonated water

Items Needed:-
- Glass or Pitcher
- Ice blocks
- Ozone Generator - approx 500mg/hr output
- Air Pump (if ozone generator doesn't have a built-in one) - at least 2 L/min
- Ceramic or Wooden aerator / air stone - must be made of ozone-resistant material
- 1 metre of Silicone Tubing - to connect aerator to ozone outlet on ozone generator
- 1 metre of Silicone Tubing - to connect air pump to ozone generator ( if required )

1) Fill half of the Glass / Pitcher with ice blocks
2) Fill the rest of the glass up with water

3) Connect the one end of the silicone tube to the attachment on the aerator, and the other end
to the "ozone out" feedthru on the ozone generator.
4) If no pump is built-in, connect a length of silicone tubing to the air pump outlet and connect
the other end of the silicone tubing to the "air in" outlet on the ozone generator
5) Power on both the ozone generator and the air pump ( if required ) You should feel and hear
air bubbling out of the airstone and you should notice an ozone smell ( a clean, crisp smell
similar to the smell experienced after an electrical storm )
6) Place the aerator in the glass. You should see lots of tiny bubbles developing inside the
You can bubble ozone in the water for approx 1-2 minutes if you have a 500 mg/hr ozone
machine. Running time will be longer with a lower output ozone generator.
8) After approx 1-2 minutes, power off the ozone generator (and air pump) and remove the
aerator from the glass.
Drink the Ozonated water as soon as you can after making it. The ozone is constantly
coming out of solution and will completely dissipate in about 20 minutes, so the sooner you
drink it, the more ozone you'll get. Don't try to guzzle it because it's icy water, but keep on
sipping it steadily until its all down.

The purpose of the ice is to make the water as cold as possible in order to absorb more ozone and hold onto it for a longer period of time. Room temperature water loses its ozone within a few minutes.

Friday, November 30, 2007

Ozone Uses

Ozone Properties
Molecular Formula : O³
Molecular Weight : 48
Color : light blue / colourless
Solubility in Water (@ O°C) : 0.64
Density : 2.144 g/l
Electrochemical Potential : 2.07 Volts
The Smell of Ozone : Ozone at low concentrations ( 0.01 - 0.04 PPM ) leaves a
fresh and pleasant smell to a room. Higher concentrations
exhibit an “electrical” odor. This is typically smelled after a
strong lighting or rainstorm.
Half Life : As soon as ozone is formed, it starts to decay to oxygen.
The half life is 2½ to 7 minutes in most applications,
depending on the ambient conditions. In cool, sterile
environments the half life can extend to 60 minutes.
Higher temperatures lead to shorter half life.

Ozone Solubility
The solubility of ozone depends on the water temperature and the ozone concentration in the
gas phase: Units in mg/l or ppm

O³ Gas 5°C 10°C 15°C 20°C
1.5% 11.09 9.75 8.40 6.43
2% 14.79 13.00 11.19 8.57
3% 22.18 19.50 16.79 12.86

Oxidation Reduction Potential
ORP is a term used frequently in the water treatment & food processing industry. ORP stands
for Oxidation-Reduction Potential. So what is that? The best definition I can give is that “ORP
is a measure of the cleanliness of the water & its ability to break down contaminants”. It has
a range of -2,000 to + 2,000
and units are in “mV” (millivolts). Since ozone is an oxidizer, we
are only concerned with positive ORP levels (above 0 mV).

Ozone owes its excellent bactericidal, viricide, and sporicidal activities to its powerful oxidizing properties. Ozone has an oxidation reduction potential of +2.07 volts as compared to HOCL
(the active form of Chlorine in aqueous solution) which is +1.49 volts. It is reported to be 3000
times as germicidal as chlorine. It retains this strong oxidizing capability in aqueous solution,

a property crucial for water disinfection and sterilization, as well as in high humidity air

ORP sensors work by measuring the dissolved oxygen. More contaminants in the water result
in less dissolved oxygen because the organics are consuming the oxygen and therefore, the
lower the ORP level. The higher the ORP level, the more ability the water has to destroy foreign contaminants such as microbes, or carbon based contaminants.

The chart below identifies ORP levels for various applications:

ORP Level (mV) Application
0-150 No practical use
150-250 Aquaculture
250-350 Cooling Towers
400-475 Swimming pools
450-600 Hot Tubs
600 Water Disinfection *
800 Water Sterilization **
* Disinfection is destruction of specific pathogenic microorganisms
Sterilization is the destruction of all microbial life

How does an ORP meter work?
An ORP meter measures very small voltages generated with a probe placed in ozonated water. The electrode is made of platinum or gold, which reversibly looses its electrons to the oxidizer. A voltage is generated which is compared to a silver (reference) electrode in a silver salt solution, similar to a pH probe. The more oxidizer available, the greater the voltage difference between the solutions.

Ozone compared to other gaseous disinfectants
Gaseous disinfectants in common use are sulphur dioxide, formaldehyde, and in certain applications, hydrocyanic acid. It has been clearly demonstrated that ozone in equivalent concentrations exerts a much stronger bactericidal effect than any of the foregoing disinfectants. To obtain the same bactericidal effect concentration of 160 times the amount is required for sulphur dioxide, 37 times the amount for formaldehyde, and 1.7 times the amount for
hydrocyanic acid gas.

Some specific compounds oxidized by Ozone:
- Ammonia
- Phenolics
- Detergents
- Fulvic Acid
- Tannic Acids (plant-originated acids)
- Sulfides
- Cyanides
- Spores of Molds (very effective)
- Amoebae (very effective)
- 2.4D
- Arsenic
- Chlorine and its derivatives
- Dioxins
- Cigarette smoke: A puff of cigarette smoke contains 4 billion particles and more than 1500
ranging from light, reactive gases (deadly carbon monoxide
is one), suspended chemical particulates and tars. Ozone destroys most
of these products and even “burns” the lighter
tars in the air and converts
to harmless carbon.

- Haloforms: Strongly reduced by ozone. Large amounts of Aldehydes and Keytones are
produced as a
byproduct. With a reaction time of 10 to 1440 minutes, the
concentration of Aldehydes will be
8.5 times larger at a dosage of 1mg/l and 30.6
times larger at a dosage of 5 mg/l.

- Perchlorate Biphenyls: With simultaneous ultraviolet irradiation it is even possible to subject
PCBs, the
successors of DDT, to oxidative decomposition.
- Phenol
- Trihalomethanes: toxic product of a chlorine, algae reaction
- Trichlorophenol: 1.0 mg/l reduces 500 microgram Trichlorophenol and 5.0 mg/l reduces 2500

- Trichlorophenol

Effects on Bacteria and Viruses:

Bacteria are microscopically small, single-cell creatures having a primitive structure. They take
up foodstuffs and release metabolic products, and multiply by division. The bacteria body is sealed by a relatively solid-cell membrane. Their vital processes are controlled by a complex enzymatic system. Ozone interferes with the metabolism of bacterium-cells, most likely through inhibiting and blocking the operation of the enzymatic control system. A sufficient amount of ozone breaks through the cell membrane, and this leads to the destruction of the bacteria.

Viruses are small, independent particles, built of crystals and macromolecules, Unlike bacteria, they multiply only within the host cell. They transform protein of the host cell into proteins of
their own. Ozone destroys viruses by diffusing through the protein coat into the nucleic acid
core, resulting in damage of the viral RNA.
At higher concentrations, ozone destroys the capsid, or exterior protein shell by oxidation so DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic acid) structures of the microorganism are affected. In fact, DNA and RNA breakdown products could
be identified in this case.

Effects on bacterial aerosols
Aerosols were produced by spraying bacterial suspensions at 20 lb/sq. in pressure and concentrations of bacteria were in the range of 50-500 viable organisms per liter of air. The
killing effect of ozone was determined by comparing the curves for decay with, and without, ozone. Ozone concentrations ranged from 2.0 PPM (parts per million) down to 0.023 PPM.
Tests were performed on three organisms; Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus 'C' and Staphylococcus albus. The role of humidity in the action of ozone, particularly when the gas is
at low concentration, was apparent. At humidities less than 45%, ozone, even in high concentrations, exerts no appreciable disinfecting action on bacteria. For humidities above
50%, however, ozone reduced the bacteria count. In fact, ozone as low as (0.025 PPM
showed definite bactericidal action at 60 to 80% humidity.

Bacteria that have settled on surface
Bacteria on surfaces constitute a potential infection danger as a source of infection through redispersal in the air or contact with skin or clothes. Tests were made to determine whether ozone has any disinfecting action on deposited bacteria. Bacteria were sprayed on various surfaces: agar in Petri dishes; Whatman filter paper; sterile glass Petri dishes and wool cloth. These were placed in known conditions of humidity (range 60-85%), temperature and ozone concentration. After being exposed, the bacteria were counted and compared with surfaces
having bacteria not exposed to ozone. Ozone in a concentration of 0.02 PPM in a moderately humid atmosphere exercises a very definite killing effect against bacteria on surfaces, but below this level it has little effect.

The kill depends on (a) the "depth" and type of surface; so moist agar, Whatman #1 filter paper and wool cloth are more favorable to survival than glass or #50 Whatman paper; (b) resistance
to ozone of different types of bacteria: Staphylococcus albus resistance is greater than Streptococcus Salivarius, which in turn is greater than B.prodigiosus.

Ozone, in concentrations up to 0.04 PPM in humid atmospheres exerts a disinfecting action
on certain bacteria; streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus 'C', Staphylococcus albus and B. prodigiosus. Tests on E. coli with up to 1 to 2 PPM in relatively dry air failed to destroy any organisms. This confirms ozone is a poor disinfectant at low humidities. However, at humidities above 60% tests confirmed pathogens can be destroyed by minute amounts of ozone.
Increasing the moisture content of the environment favorably influences germicidal effect. This
is brought about by swelling of microbes making them more susceptible to destruction.

The effect of ozone below a certain critical concentration value is small or zero. Above this level
all pathogens are eventually destroyed. This effect is called all-or-none response and the critical level the "threshold value”.

There is a two-step process of inactivation or viruses. Period one lasts less than 10 seconds, during which time a kill rate of about 99% is achieved. Period two runs for several minutes to complete destruction. This phenomenon is independent of changes in ozone concentration between 0.07 and 2.5 mg/l.

Ozone Applications

> Odour Control
Ozone is unmatched as a deodorizer. Ozone has a strong characteristic odor even at very low concentrations. Its effect on the olfactory membrane makes it difficult or impossible to detect other odors when ozone is present. In low concentrations (0.01-0.02 PPM), ozone acts is a masking agent on most odors. Tests have demonstrated that room odors were undetectable
even when ozone concentrations were less than 0.01 PPM.

Some very delicate odors are destroyed even at these low concentrations. However, to totally eliminate "heavy" odors higher concentrations of ozone are required to react with gases in the
air and odors trapped in materials. Time to deodorize is determined by the quantity of the substance producing odor and the quantity of ozone available to react with it.

Ozone at a concentration of 0.1 PPM will destroy micro-organisms and eliminate most odors within 48 hours.

Odoriferous substances are susceptible to oxidation, but the addition or oxygen to a substance (oxidation) dues not always render it safe. For example, oxidation of allyl alcohol yields aldehyde acrolein, a very deadly gas. Safety considerations apply only to definite industrial odors and do not include animal wastes or putrefactive gases of animal or vegetable tissue. Putrefaction produces highly odorous substances such as amino, aromatic and fatty acids, indole, skatole, cresol. said also the alkaloid-like ptomaines, such as tetramethylene-diamine and pentamethylene-diamene, etc. The effect of ozone on these substances is that of combustion; i.e., the find products of the hydrocarbons being CO2 and water and those containing nitrogen, nitrogen pentoxide.

Where putrefaction occurs - the air from sewers, etc. - while highly odoriferous, contains but traces of these substances. The odors are easily and completely destroyed by ozone. Ozone
has been used in San Francisco to deodorize a sewage pumping station when the pump
screens had to be cleaned. A rat died in a wall of an office building and the odor penetrated several offices. The application of ozone completely destroyed the odor.

Single atoms of oxygen from the decomposition of ozone immediately oxidize odors. The
lower the temperature and the larger the odor molecules, the weaker the oxidizing effect. Humidity lists no effect on this process, but does accelerate destruction of bacteria, viruses
and fungi that may contribute to odor.

> Sterilizing
Ozone at ambient temperatures is the only substance which can be used as a total sterilizing agent and a substitute for high temperature. Pyrogens, byproducts of microbial growth that are toxic to humans, are not eliminated after normal autoclaving or dry heat sterilization. Pyrogens adhere firmly to surfaces of containers and are removed only after heating at very high temperatures for extended periods of time. Because pyrogenic material is a lipopolysaccharide, the unsaturated double bonds are easily oxidized by ozone. Therefore, ozone has a distinct advantage over other depyrogenation methods.

> Use in Air Conditioning
Molds in ducts, filters and other parts of ventilating equipment, in basements and other damp places produce objectionable odors. In low concentrations ozone masks odors, giving a
freshness to the air normally absent in recirculated air. Also with time and the right humidity conditions, ozone destroys bacteria and mold. Where possible, ozone should be introduced in sufficient quantity to mix with all the air when the building is unoccupied. With recirculation,
this will build up a concentration sufficient not only to deodorize the air but thoroughly disinfect and sterilize the entire building and HVAC equipment. This will result in the reduction of molds, bacteria and decomposing organic material in the duct work and parts of the equipment that are inaccessible. This work should be completed and the ozone reduced to acceptable levels before the building is occupied again.

Effect of ozone on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus - W.J. Kowalski. Penn State University:
Controlled levels of ozone are used in Europe in air conditioning systems to deodorize and freshen air in theaters, shopping malls, offices, etc. Demand for make-up air is reduced as the recycle system furnishes air of sufficient purity. Body odors, cigarette smoke mid various unpleasant smells are removed. These gases are mostly hydrocarbons, together with hydrogen sulfide and are rapidly destroyed by ozone.

Our body automatically controls respiration. When air contains even minute and practically imperceptible quantities of disagreeable odors we involuntarily shorten out breathing. Even
though rate of respiration may increase under such conditions, the total volume of oxygen taken into our lungs is reduced. This results in a mild form of autointoxication as wastes increase in
the blood, and we feel lethargic and tired. In 1919, the first ozone machine was installed in the
air duct of the O'Fallon School (St. Louis). T
he effects were so positive that ozonators were installed in thirteen old schools and three new ones. Teachers and administrators noted
an improvement in the health of the children and a reduction in the number of colds.

The St. Louis Hygiene Department kept a record or all absences on account of illness, the
nature of the disease and time lost. Two tests were conducted, one in the morning without
ozone and one in the afternoon with ozone. Physicians from the Hygiene Department exposed agar dishes and delivered them to the City Bacteriologist for incubation and count. The afternoon test with ozone averaged half the bacteria count of the morning test when no ozone was used. Another test was conducted with 65% recirculated air. Recirculated air with ozone gave 36%
less bacteria than 100% fresh air without ozone. Odors were entirely absent in the recirculated
air test.

> Health and Medicine
"Exposure to ozone reduces influenza diesease severity and alters distribution of influenza viral antigens in murine lungs."

This study was undertaken to assess the effects of exposure to ozone on the course of influenza virus infection. Mice were exposed to ozone or filtered air, or both, with aerosolized infection by influenza virus. It was found that animals exposed to ozone during infection showed a reduced severity of disease measured by decreased mortality and delayed time of death.

Ammonia, and to some degree hydrogen sulfide, affect pig performance directly (by altering metabolic reactions) and indirectly (by influencing pig health). Atmospheric ammonia was particularly damaging to young pigs infected with Ascaris suum. Ozone reduces harmful ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Ozone converts ammonia (NH3) to harmless nitrogen and water vapor. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is broken down into water and sulphur dioxide, also a powerful disinfectant.

> Ozone Therapy
Ozone has been used successfully around the world for over 80 years to treat:

- Cancer

- Diabetes
- Stroke
- Depression
- Chronic Fatigue
- Lupus
- Fibromyalgia

and over 150 more diseases. In some clinics around the world, ozone therapy is the first agent given to each and every patient that enters the clinic regardless of their ailments. German ambulances even carry ozone generators for emergency use. Ozone Therapy addresses the
key issues in almost all disease conditions: oxygen delivery, circulation, and immune system function.

Types of Ozone therapy include:

Ozone Sauna: normal sauna application where ozone is introduced in controlled amounts
- It is a relaxing and non-invasive approach to ozone therapy
- It cleanses the skin, pores, and lymphatic system
- The user will take advantage of 2 therapies at the same time: sweat therapy and ozone
therapy (both individually with their own health benefits)

- You feel clean, refreshed, and rejuvenated

Auricular Insufflations: irrigate the ear canal with the ozone / oxygen mixture from a medical
ozone generator

- relief of allergies
- relief of colds
- clearing of sore throats and swollen glands.

Vaginal Insufflation: a vaginal cannula is used to introduce the ozone gas to the patient
- relief from yeast infections and various sexually transmitted diseases including herpes

Rectal Insufflation: the ozone gas is infused rectally using a urethral catheter
- relief from colitis, bacterial infections, or bleeding

Body Suit: the ozone gas is infused into the body tight suit. suit is sealed at ankles and wrists
- easiest and most pleasurable of the methods of using ozone
- ozone is absorbed through the skin, cleansing the lymphatic system, and reportedly
inducing the body wide effects of ozone

Bagging: method of isolating a body part by surrounding it with a bag (such as hand, arm, leg,
foot, torso,
pelvis, but NEVER head), and introducing ozone.
- kills any bacteria, viruses, fungus, or molds infecting the open wound
- increase blood flow to the wound, and stimulates the healing process.
- It has been documented that many a body part has been spared amputation through the
application of ozone
in this method.

Major Autohemotherapy: This procedure is performed only by trained professionals, usually only
in a clinic
setting. Approximately 200cc of the patients blood is
withdrawn into an evacuated
bottle. The bottle is then hung upside
down, and ozone gas (the same volume as
the blood withdrawn) is
infused into the
bottle, usually at a concentration of 40ug/ml. The
blood is then given back to the patient, much like a
- Major Autohemotherapy is the preferred method of many practitioners, and it is used in
well over 150 diseases. In Germany, even the ambulances are equipped with ozone
generators; if ozone is administered within 24 hours of a stroke, 95% of patients suffer
permanent paralysis.

Ozonated Olive Oil: Ozonated Olive Oil is used around the world for a variety of uses:
- acne
- skin lesions
- burns
- fungal infections (eg. of the toe nail)
- herpes
- eczema
- leg sores
- bed sores
- gingivitis
- hemorrhoids
- STD's
- cold sores and many others.

This appears to be the only way to stabilize ozone without adding artificial stabilizers,
chemicals, or preservatives. Ozone is bubbled at very high concentrations, under a controlled environment for days until it slowly begins to solidify. This solid form of olive oil forms a Vaseline or salve like substance and will keep for many months on the shelf. If kept refrigerated, it maintains its full effectiveness almost indefinitely.

Some individuals even choose to ingest ozonated olive oil in order to obtain the system wide effects of using ozone medically.

> Use in Product Storage
Ozone has been used in food preservation since 1909. Storage places, warehouses &
refrigerated lockers can be disinfected. High humidity in the environment favorably influences germicidal effect. Ozone decomposition is accelerated due to high moisture content, the walls
of the storage room, the packaging materials, the absorption effect of the stored goods, and
also the oxidation reactions taking place. The ozone generator must have sufficient capacity
to maintain ozone at the required level. A strong air movement is required to assure optimum distribution of ozone. The storage space need not be air tight as long as the capacity of the
ozone generator is sufficient to replenish the ozone lost through air exchange.

The prerequisite in the control of microorganisms is the maintenance of clean environment.
The microbial population of the product and the storage environment determine the storage life
of the product. When a food product is exposed to contamination during preparation, handling
or storage, large numbers of microorganisms are introduced into the product. In food, micro-organism find a favorable habitat for growth and each new generation of bacteria means
a doubling of the population. The result is a breakdown of the food product evidenced by objectionable physical appearance, taste and odor.

There is no compound that can be applied to a dirty surface to destroy all microorganisms.
To demonstrate, a good sanitizer was applied liberally to a ditty wail in a food handling plant.
This wall had a bacterial population of 28,000,000 organisms on a two-inch square. Five minutes
after treatment the wall still had a bacteria count of 11,000,000. Although the contamination
had been reduced, the wall was still heavily contaminated A food product entering this storage
room had a relatively low surface bacteria count, but in 48 hours the product had a count of
150,000 in a two-inch square. Air examination showed an extremely high bacteria count. Even though multiplication of bacteria might be slowed by low temperature, the product was acquiring high count that would reduce its shelf-life after it left the storage room. If kept for a longer period
in storage, its storage life would be considerably shorter than if stored in a room relatively free of contamination.

> Fish Storage
Freshly caught fish can be stored longer if washed in water containing ozone. If it is packed in
ice made from water containing ozone. Freshness can be extended.

> Control of surface microflora
In a refrigerated atmosphere with ozone, the growth of the surface microflora (pseudomonas families, spores, Salmonellae and staphylococci) is eliminated or retarded.

Forequarters of beef with relatively equal bacteria counts were tested, one in the ozone-treated refrigerator at a concentration of approximately 0.1 PPM of ozone and 60-deg F, and the other
under similar conditions except for the lack of ozone. At the end of the test period, the
ozone-treated beef had about the same count as at the start, but the untreated beef showed an increase of 600 percent.

Ozone used in beef storage is most efficient if the meat surface has around 60% moisture content.

Beef stored in a cooler under an ozone concentration of 0.04 PPM at 2-deg C, experiences 0.9
to 1.0 percent less shrinkage in three days and 17 percent less in 7 days. Trim loss is reduced by 2.6 to 5.5 percent. This is less shrinkage and trim loss than meat stored under identical conditions but without ozone usage.

The storage life of beef a refrigerated state can be increased by 30 to 40 percent if the beef is
kept in an atmosphere of 7.7 to 15 PPM. and the microbial saturation of its surface is not
greater than 1000 bacteria per square cm.

> Aquaculture
- improve water quality
- faster growth rates
- decrease deathloss
- safe for fish
- increases DO levels
- destroys organics

> Cooling Towers
- 3,125 times more germicidal than chlorine
- eliminates the use of chemicals except for pH balancing
- ends discharge liabilities and chemical storage record keeping
- destroys all types of microorganisms instantly
- minimizes condenser fouling
- decomposes organic waste by oxidation
- removes existing calcium carbonate scale by destroying the biomass glue bonding agent
- low maintenance costs
- the most environmentally friendly oxidant
- no persistent chemicals or disinfectants in bleed - ozone breaks down to oxygen
- reduces the corrosion rate of metals, including copper heat exchangers
- saves on energy costs by increasing the heat transfer efficiency of the chiller

> Fire Restoration with Ozone
- works fast
- instant odor/smoke destruction
- ozonate up to 50,000 sq. ft
- safe
- variable control allows fine-tuning of ozone output for each application
- ozone gets into spaces that cleaning cannot

> Soil Remediation with Ozone
- 12 times more soluble than oxygen in water
- Moves easily through the soil
- Produced on-site, no need for hazardous chemical transportation or storage
- Most powerful oxidizer available
- Complex organics break down to carbon dioxide or less toxic molecules
- Breaks down to oxygen which increases DO levels
- Contaminants Destroyed by Ozone: MTBE, BTEX, Hydrocarbons, Diesel Fuel, TCE ,
Pesticides, Chlorinated
Solvents, VOC's,Aliphatic & Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons

> Food Preservation with Ozone
- Ozone can reduce contamination on food and increase storage life.
- The age-enhancing hormone ethylene is instantly destroyed. This reduces spoiling and keeps
the food
looking fresh.
- instantly destroys microbes
- eliminates chemical storage
- environmentally friendly
- stops mold spores
- does not affect product taste
- no harmful by-products
- can be used in air and water

> Ozone Water Treatment:
- most powerful oxidizer available
- instantly destroys bacteria
- improves flocculation of iron
- environmentally friendly
- 3,125x more germicidal than chlorine
- been used for decades
- no harmful by-products
- reduces sulfur odors

> Ozone Drinking Water for Agriculture
- Many water sources have poor taste and high pathogen levels leading to decreased
consumption and
illness. This can compromise livestock performance.
- Using ozone can greatly improve the quality of your water.

> Ozone Pools / Spas
- Decrease in chlorine use
- Improval of the filter and coagulant capacities. This leads to a reduction of coagulant use and
backwashing of the filter is required
- Water use can be decreased, because of an increase in water quality
- Ozone oxidizes organic and inorganic matter in the water, without the formation of unwanted
such as chloramines (which cause a chlorine-scent)
- Chlorine scents can be fully diminished by ozone application
- Ozone is a more powerful oxidant and disinfectant than chlorine. Certain chlorine-resistant
pathogens cannot
multiply in water that is treated with ozone

Halogens like Chlorine are extremely toxic. Smell your skin even one hour after you are out of
a chlorinated pool! In about one hour your body can absorb up to one litre of pool water, with
the disolved chlorine and other chemicals. Can be easily verified by going on a scale before
and after swimming. Also if you dont change your water every year, you are swimming in an unbelieveable chemical soup. Water evaporates, chemicals do not, they concentrate over the years.

> Bottling Applications
- Bottle rinsing
- Cap sanitation
- Bottle sanitation
- Bottle filling

> Laundries
- Water savings
- Energy savings
- Reduced production time
- Linen savings