Ozone Ozonation Things to do with Ozone

Ozone is incredible, many things can be done with ozone.

Friday, November 30, 2007

Ozone Uses


Ozone Properties
Molecular Formula : O³
Molecular Weight : 48
Color : light blue / colourless
Solubility in Water (@ O°C) : 0.64
Density : 2.144 g/l
Electrochemical Potential : 2.07 Volts
The Smell of Ozone : Ozone at low concentrations ( 0.01 - 0.04 PPM ) leaves a
fresh and pleasant smell to a room. Higher concentrations
exhibit an “electrical” odor. This is typically smelled after a
strong lighting or rainstorm.
Half Life : As soon as ozone is formed, it starts to decay to oxygen.
The half life is 2½ to 7 minutes in most applications,
depending on the ambient conditions. In cool, sterile
environments the half life can extend to 60 minutes.
Higher temperatures lead to shorter half life.






Ozone Solubility
The solubility of ozone depends on the water temperature and the ozone concentration in the
gas phase: Units in mg/l or ppm

O³ Gas 5°C 10°C 15°C 20°C
1.5% 11.09 9.75 8.40 6.43
2% 14.79 13.00 11.19 8.57
3% 22.18 19.50 16.79 12.86



Oxidation Reduction Potential
ORP is a term used frequently in the water treatment & food processing industry. ORP stands
for Oxidation-Reduction Potential. So what is that? The best definition I can give is that “ORP
is a measure of the cleanliness of the water & its ability to break down contaminants”. It has
a range of -2,000 to + 2,000
and units are in “mV” (millivolts). Since ozone is an oxidizer, we
are only concerned with positive ORP levels (above 0 mV).


Ozone owes its excellent bactericidal, viricide, and sporicidal activities to its powerful oxidizing properties. Ozone has an oxidation reduction potential of +2.07 volts as compared to HOCL
(the active form of Chlorine in aqueous solution) which is +1.49 volts. It is reported to be 3000
times as germicidal as chlorine. It retains this strong oxidizing capability in aqueous solution,

a property crucial for water disinfection and sterilization, as well as in high humidity air
applications.



ORP sensors work by measuring the dissolved oxygen. More contaminants in the water result
in less dissolved oxygen because the organics are consuming the oxygen and therefore, the
lower the ORP level. The higher the ORP level, the more ability the water has to destroy foreign contaminants such as microbes, or carbon based contaminants.


The chart below identifies ORP levels for various applications:

ORP Level (mV) Application
0-150 No practical use
150-250 Aquaculture
250-350 Cooling Towers
400-475 Swimming pools
450-600 Hot Tubs
600 Water Disinfection *
800 Water Sterilization **
* Disinfection is destruction of specific pathogenic microorganisms
**
Sterilization is the destruction of all microbial life

How does an ORP meter work?
An ORP meter measures very small voltages generated with a probe placed in ozonated water. The electrode is made of platinum or gold, which reversibly looses its electrons to the oxidizer. A voltage is generated which is compared to a silver (reference) electrode in a silver salt solution, similar to a pH probe. The more oxidizer available, the greater the voltage difference between the solutions.



Ozone compared to other gaseous disinfectants
Gaseous disinfectants in common use are sulphur dioxide, formaldehyde, and in certain applications, hydrocyanic acid. It has been clearly demonstrated that ozone in equivalent concentrations exerts a much stronger bactericidal effect than any of the foregoing disinfectants. To obtain the same bactericidal effect concentration of 160 times the amount is required for sulphur dioxide, 37 times the amount for formaldehyde, and 1.7 times the amount for
hydrocyanic acid gas.


Some specific compounds oxidized by Ozone:
- Ammonia
- Phenolics
- Detergents
- Fulvic Acid
- Tannic Acids (plant-originated acids)
- Sulfides
- Cyanides
- Spores of Molds (very effective)
- Amoebae (very effective)
- 2.4D
- Arsenic
- Chlorine and its derivatives
- DDT
- Dioxins
- Cigarette smoke: A puff of cigarette smoke contains 4 billion particles and more than 1500
compounds,
ranging from light, reactive gases (deadly carbon monoxide
is one), suspended chemical particulates and tars. Ozone destroys most
of these products and even “burns” the lighter
tars in the air and converts
them
to harmless carbon.

- Haloforms: Strongly reduced by ozone. Large amounts of Aldehydes and Keytones are
produced as a
byproduct. With a reaction time of 10 to 1440 minutes, the
concentration of Aldehydes will be
8.5 times larger at a dosage of 1mg/l and 30.6
times larger at a dosage of 5 mg/l.


- Perchlorate Biphenyls: With simultaneous ultraviolet irradiation it is even possible to subject
PCBs, the
successors of DDT, to oxidative decomposition.
- Phenol
- Trihalomethanes: toxic product of a chlorine, algae reaction
- Trichlorophenol: 1.0 mg/l reduces 500 microgram Trichlorophenol and 5.0 mg/l reduces 2500
microgram

- Trichlorophenol




Effects on Bacteria and Viruses:

Bacteria are microscopically small, single-cell creatures having a primitive structure. They take
up foodstuffs and release metabolic products, and multiply by division. The bacteria body is sealed by a relatively solid-cell membrane. Their vital processes are controlled by a complex enzymatic system. Ozone interferes with the metabolism of bacterium-cells, most likely through inhibiting and blocking the operation of the enzymatic control system. A sufficient amount of ozone breaks through the cell membrane, and this leads to the destruction of the bacteria.


Viruses are small, independent particles, built of crystals and macromolecules, Unlike bacteria, they multiply only within the host cell. They transform protein of the host cell into proteins of
their own. Ozone destroys viruses by diffusing through the protein coat into the nucleic acid
core, resulting in damage of the viral RNA.
At higher concentrations, ozone destroys the capsid, or exterior protein shell by oxidation so DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic acid) structures of the microorganism are affected. In fact, DNA and RNA breakdown products could
be identified in this case.


Effects on bacterial aerosols
Aerosols were produced by spraying bacterial suspensions at 20 lb/sq. in pressure and concentrations of bacteria were in the range of 50-500 viable organisms per liter of air. The
killing effect of ozone was determined by comparing the curves for decay with, and without, ozone. Ozone concentrations ranged from 2.0 PPM (parts per million) down to 0.023 PPM.
Tests were performed on three organisms; Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus 'C' and Staphylococcus albus. The role of humidity in the action of ozone, particularly when the gas is
at low concentration, was apparent. At humidities less than 45%, ozone, even in high concentrations, exerts no appreciable disinfecting action on bacteria. For humidities above
50%, however, ozone reduced the bacteria count. In fact, ozone as low as (0.025 PPM
showed definite bactericidal action at 60 to 80% humidity.


Bacteria that have settled on surface
Bacteria on surfaces constitute a potential infection danger as a source of infection through redispersal in the air or contact with skin or clothes. Tests were made to determine whether ozone has any disinfecting action on deposited bacteria. Bacteria were sprayed on various surfaces: agar in Petri dishes; Whatman filter paper; sterile glass Petri dishes and wool cloth. These were placed in known conditions of humidity (range 60-85%), temperature and ozone concentration. After being exposed, the bacteria were counted and compared with surfaces
having bacteria not exposed to ozone. Ozone in a concentration of 0.02 PPM in a moderately humid atmosphere exercises a very definite killing effect against bacteria on surfaces, but below this level it has little effect.


The kill depends on (a) the "depth" and type of surface; so moist agar, Whatman #1 filter paper and wool cloth are more favorable to survival than glass or #50 Whatman paper; (b) resistance
to ozone of different types of bacteria: Staphylococcus albus resistance is greater than Streptococcus Salivarius, which in turn is greater than B.prodigiosus.


Discussion
Ozone, in concentrations up to 0.04 PPM in humid atmospheres exerts a disinfecting action
on certain bacteria; streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus 'C', Staphylococcus albus and B. prodigiosus. Tests on E. coli with up to 1 to 2 PPM in relatively dry air failed to destroy any organisms. This confirms ozone is a poor disinfectant at low humidities. However, at humidities above 60% tests confirmed pathogens can be destroyed by minute amounts of ozone.
Increasing the moisture content of the environment favorably influences germicidal effect. This
is brought about by swelling of microbes making them more susceptible to destruction.


The effect of ozone below a certain critical concentration value is small or zero. Above this level
all pathogens are eventually destroyed. This effect is called all-or-none response and the critical level the "threshold value”.


There is a two-step process of inactivation or viruses. Period one lasts less than 10 seconds, during which time a kill rate of about 99% is achieved. Period two runs for several minutes to complete destruction. This phenomenon is independent of changes in ozone concentration between 0.07 and 2.5 mg/l.





Ozone Applications


> Odour Control
Ozone is unmatched as a deodorizer. Ozone has a strong characteristic odor even at very low concentrations. Its effect on the olfactory membrane makes it difficult or impossible to detect other odors when ozone is present. In low concentrations (0.01-0.02 PPM), ozone acts is a masking agent on most odors. Tests have demonstrated that room odors were undetectable
even when ozone concentrations were less than 0.01 PPM.


Some very delicate odors are destroyed even at these low concentrations. However, to totally eliminate "heavy" odors higher concentrations of ozone are required to react with gases in the
air and odors trapped in materials. Time to deodorize is determined by the quantity of the substance producing odor and the quantity of ozone available to react with it.


Ozone at a concentration of 0.1 PPM will destroy micro-organisms and eliminate most odors within 48 hours.

Odoriferous substances are susceptible to oxidation, but the addition or oxygen to a substance (oxidation) dues not always render it safe. For example, oxidation of allyl alcohol yields aldehyde acrolein, a very deadly gas. Safety considerations apply only to definite industrial odors and do not include animal wastes or putrefactive gases of animal or vegetable tissue. Putrefaction produces highly odorous substances such as amino, aromatic and fatty acids, indole, skatole, cresol. said also the alkaloid-like ptomaines, such as tetramethylene-diamine and pentamethylene-diamene, etc. The effect of ozone on these substances is that of combustion; i.e., the find products of the hydrocarbons being CO2 and water and those containing nitrogen, nitrogen pentoxide.

Where putrefaction occurs - the air from sewers, etc. - while highly odoriferous, contains but traces of these substances. The odors are easily and completely destroyed by ozone. Ozone
has been used in San Francisco to deodorize a sewage pumping station when the pump
screens had to be cleaned. A rat died in a wall of an office building and the odor penetrated several offices. The application of ozone completely destroyed the odor.


Single atoms of oxygen from the decomposition of ozone immediately oxidize odors. The
lower the temperature and the larger the odor molecules, the weaker the oxidizing effect. Humidity lists no effect on this process, but does accelerate destruction of bacteria, viruses
and fungi that may contribute to odor.



> Sterilizing
Ozone at ambient temperatures is the only substance which can be used as a total sterilizing agent and a substitute for high temperature. Pyrogens, byproducts of microbial growth that are toxic to humans, are not eliminated after normal autoclaving or dry heat sterilization. Pyrogens adhere firmly to surfaces of containers and are removed only after heating at very high temperatures for extended periods of time. Because pyrogenic material is a lipopolysaccharide, the unsaturated double bonds are easily oxidized by ozone. Therefore, ozone has a distinct advantage over other depyrogenation methods.


> Use in Air Conditioning
Molds in ducts, filters and other parts of ventilating equipment, in basements and other damp places produce objectionable odors. In low concentrations ozone masks odors, giving a
freshness to the air normally absent in recirculated air. Also with time and the right humidity conditions, ozone destroys bacteria and mold. Where possible, ozone should be introduced in sufficient quantity to mix with all the air when the building is unoccupied. With recirculation,
this will build up a concentration sufficient not only to deodorize the air but thoroughly disinfect and sterilize the entire building and HVAC equipment. This will result in the reduction of molds, bacteria and decomposing organic material in the duct work and parts of the equipment that are inaccessible. This work should be completed and the ozone reduced to acceptable levels before the building is occupied again.


Effect of ozone on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus - W.J. Kowalski. Penn State University:
Controlled levels of ozone are used in Europe in air conditioning systems to deodorize and freshen air in theaters, shopping malls, offices, etc. Demand for make-up air is reduced as the recycle system furnishes air of sufficient purity. Body odors, cigarette smoke mid various unpleasant smells are removed. These gases are mostly hydrocarbons, together with hydrogen sulfide and are rapidly destroyed by ozone.

Our body automatically controls respiration. When air contains even minute and practically imperceptible quantities of disagreeable odors we involuntarily shorten out breathing. Even
though rate of respiration may increase under such conditions, the total volume of oxygen taken into our lungs is reduced. This results in a mild form of autointoxication as wastes increase in
the blood, and we feel lethargic and tired. In 1919, the first ozone machine was installed in the
air duct of the O'Fallon School (St. Louis). T
he effects were so positive that ozonators were installed in thirteen old schools and three new ones. Teachers and administrators noted
an improvement in the health of the children and a reduction in the number of colds.


The St. Louis Hygiene Department kept a record or all absences on account of illness, the
nature of the disease and time lost. Two tests were conducted, one in the morning without
ozone and one in the afternoon with ozone. Physicians from the Hygiene Department exposed agar dishes and delivered them to the City Bacteriologist for incubation and count. The afternoon test with ozone averaged half the bacteria count of the morning test when no ozone was used. Another test was conducted with 65% recirculated air. Recirculated air with ozone gave 36%
less bacteria than 100% fresh air without ozone. Odors were entirely absent in the recirculated
air test.



> Health and Medicine
"Exposure to ozone reduces influenza diesease severity and alters distribution of influenza viral antigens in murine lungs."

This study was undertaken to assess the effects of exposure to ozone on the course of influenza virus infection. Mice were exposed to ozone or filtered air, or both, with aerosolized infection by influenza virus. It was found that animals exposed to ozone during infection showed a reduced severity of disease measured by decreased mortality and delayed time of death.

Ammonia, and to some degree hydrogen sulfide, affect pig performance directly (by altering metabolic reactions) and indirectly (by influencing pig health). Atmospheric ammonia was particularly damaging to young pigs infected with Ascaris suum. Ozone reduces harmful ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Ozone converts ammonia (NH3) to harmless nitrogen and water vapor. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is broken down into water and sulphur dioxide, also a powerful disinfectant.


> Ozone Therapy
Ozone has been used successfully around the world for over 80 years to treat:

- Cancer

- AIDS
- Diabetes
- Stroke
- Depression
- Chronic Fatigue
- Lupus
- Fibromyalgia

and over 150 more diseases. In some clinics around the world, ozone therapy is the first agent given to each and every patient that enters the clinic regardless of their ailments. German ambulances even carry ozone generators for emergency use. Ozone Therapy addresses the
key issues in almost all disease conditions: oxygen delivery, circulation, and immune system function.


Types of Ozone therapy include:

Ozone Sauna: normal sauna application where ozone is introduced in controlled amounts
- It is a relaxing and non-invasive approach to ozone therapy
- It cleanses the skin, pores, and lymphatic system
- The user will take advantage of 2 therapies at the same time: sweat therapy and ozone
therapy (both individually with their own health benefits)

- You feel clean, refreshed, and rejuvenated

Auricular Insufflations: irrigate the ear canal with the ozone / oxygen mixture from a medical
ozone generator

- relief of allergies
- relief of colds
- clearing of sore throats and swollen glands.

Vaginal Insufflation: a vaginal cannula is used to introduce the ozone gas to the patient
- relief from yeast infections and various sexually transmitted diseases including herpes

Rectal Insufflation: the ozone gas is infused rectally using a urethral catheter
- relief from colitis, bacterial infections, or bleeding

Body Suit: the ozone gas is infused into the body tight suit. suit is sealed at ankles and wrists
- easiest and most pleasurable of the methods of using ozone
- ozone is absorbed through the skin, cleansing the lymphatic system, and reportedly
inducing the body wide effects of ozone


Bagging: method of isolating a body part by surrounding it with a bag (such as hand, arm, leg,
foot, torso,
pelvis, but NEVER head), and introducing ozone.
- kills any bacteria, viruses, fungus, or molds infecting the open wound
- increase blood flow to the wound, and stimulates the healing process.
- It has been documented that many a body part has been spared amputation through the
application of ozone
in this method.

Major Autohemotherapy: This procedure is performed only by trained professionals, usually only
in a clinic
setting. Approximately 200cc of the patients blood is
withdrawn into an evacuated
bottle. The bottle is then hung upside
down, and ozone gas (the same volume as
the blood withdrawn) is
infused into the
bottle, usually at a concentration of 40ug/ml. The
blood is then given back to the patient, much like a
transfusion.
- Major Autohemotherapy is the preferred method of many practitioners, and it is used in
well over 150 diseases. In Germany, even the ambulances are equipped with ozone
generators; if ozone is administered within 24 hours of a stroke, 95% of patients suffer
no
permanent paralysis.


Ozonated Olive Oil: Ozonated Olive Oil is used around the world for a variety of uses:
- acne
- skin lesions
- burns
- fungal infections (eg. of the toe nail)
- herpes
- eczema
- leg sores
- bed sores
- gingivitis
- hemorrhoids
- STD's
- cold sores and many others.

This appears to be the only way to stabilize ozone without adding artificial stabilizers,
chemicals, or preservatives. Ozone is bubbled at very high concentrations, under a controlled environment for days until it slowly begins to solidify. This solid form of olive oil forms a Vaseline or salve like substance and will keep for many months on the shelf. If kept refrigerated, it maintains its full effectiveness almost indefinitely.

Some individuals even choose to ingest ozonated olive oil in order to obtain the system wide effects of using ozone medically.


> Use in Product Storage
Ozone has been used in food preservation since 1909. Storage places, warehouses &
refrigerated lockers can be disinfected. High humidity in the environment favorably influences germicidal effect. Ozone decomposition is accelerated due to high moisture content, the walls
of the storage room, the packaging materials, the absorption effect of the stored goods, and
also the oxidation reactions taking place. The ozone generator must have sufficient capacity
to maintain ozone at the required level. A strong air movement is required to assure optimum distribution of ozone. The storage space need not be air tight as long as the capacity of the
ozone generator is sufficient to replenish the ozone lost through air exchange.


The prerequisite in the control of microorganisms is the maintenance of clean environment.
The microbial population of the product and the storage environment determine the storage life
of the product. When a food product is exposed to contamination during preparation, handling
or storage, large numbers of microorganisms are introduced into the product. In food, micro-organism find a favorable habitat for growth and each new generation of bacteria means
a doubling of the population. The result is a breakdown of the food product evidenced by objectionable physical appearance, taste and odor.


There is no compound that can be applied to a dirty surface to destroy all microorganisms.
To demonstrate, a good sanitizer was applied liberally to a ditty wail in a food handling plant.
This wall had a bacterial population of 28,000,000 organisms on a two-inch square. Five minutes
after treatment the wall still had a bacteria count of 11,000,000. Although the contamination
had been reduced, the wall was still heavily contaminated A food product entering this storage
room had a relatively low surface bacteria count, but in 48 hours the product had a count of
150,000 in a two-inch square. Air examination showed an extremely high bacteria count. Even though multiplication of bacteria might be slowed by low temperature, the product was acquiring high count that would reduce its shelf-life after it left the storage room. If kept for a longer period
in storage, its storage life would be considerably shorter than if stored in a room relatively free of contamination.



> Fish Storage
Freshly caught fish can be stored longer if washed in water containing ozone. If it is packed in
ice made from water containing ozone. Freshness can be extended.



> Control of surface microflora
In a refrigerated atmosphere with ozone, the growth of the surface microflora (pseudomonas families, spores, Salmonellae and staphylococci) is eliminated or retarded.

Forequarters of beef with relatively equal bacteria counts were tested, one in the ozone-treated refrigerator at a concentration of approximately 0.1 PPM of ozone and 60-deg F, and the other
under similar conditions except for the lack of ozone. At the end of the test period, the
ozone-treated beef had about the same count as at the start, but the untreated beef showed an increase of 600 percent.


Ozone used in beef storage is most efficient if the meat surface has around 60% moisture content.

Beef stored in a cooler under an ozone concentration of 0.04 PPM at 2-deg C, experiences 0.9
to 1.0 percent less shrinkage in three days and 17 percent less in 7 days. Trim loss is reduced by 2.6 to 5.5 percent. This is less shrinkage and trim loss than meat stored under identical conditions but without ozone usage.


The storage life of beef a refrigerated state can be increased by 30 to 40 percent if the beef is
kept in an atmosphere of 7.7 to 15 PPM. and the microbial saturation of its surface is not
greater than 1000 bacteria per square cm.



> Aquaculture
- improve water quality
- faster growth rates
- decrease deathloss
- safe for fish
- increases DO levels
- destroys organics


> Cooling Towers
- 3,125 times more germicidal than chlorine
- eliminates the use of chemicals except for pH balancing
- ends discharge liabilities and chemical storage record keeping
- destroys all types of microorganisms instantly
- minimizes condenser fouling
- decomposes organic waste by oxidation
- removes existing calcium carbonate scale by destroying the biomass glue bonding agent
- low maintenance costs
- the most environmentally friendly oxidant
- no persistent chemicals or disinfectants in bleed - ozone breaks down to oxygen
- reduces the corrosion rate of metals, including copper heat exchangers
- saves on energy costs by increasing the heat transfer efficiency of the chiller


> Fire Restoration with Ozone
- works fast
- instant odor/smoke destruction
- ozonate up to 50,000 sq. ft
- safe
- variable control allows fine-tuning of ozone output for each application
- ozone gets into spaces that cleaning cannot



> Soil Remediation with Ozone
- 12 times more soluble than oxygen in water
- Moves easily through the soil
- Produced on-site, no need for hazardous chemical transportation or storage
- Most powerful oxidizer available
- Complex organics break down to carbon dioxide or less toxic molecules
- Breaks down to oxygen which increases DO levels
- Contaminants Destroyed by Ozone: MTBE, BTEX, Hydrocarbons, Diesel Fuel, TCE ,
Pesticides, Chlorinated
Solvents, VOC's,Aliphatic & Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons


> Food Preservation with Ozone
- Ozone can reduce contamination on food and increase storage life.
- The age-enhancing hormone ethylene is instantly destroyed. This reduces spoiling and keeps
the food
looking fresh.
- instantly destroys microbes
- eliminates chemical storage
- environmentally friendly
- stops mold spores
- does not affect product taste
- no harmful by-products
- can be used in air and water


> Ozone Water Treatment:
- most powerful oxidizer available
- instantly destroys bacteria
- improves flocculation of iron
- environmentally friendly
- 3,125x more germicidal than chlorine
- been used for decades
- no harmful by-products
- reduces sulfur odors


> Ozone Drinking Water for Agriculture
- Many water sources have poor taste and high pathogen levels leading to decreased
consumption and
illness. This can compromise livestock performance.
- Using ozone can greatly improve the quality of your water.


> Ozone Pools / Spas
- Decrease in chlorine use
- Improval of the filter and coagulant capacities. This leads to a reduction of coagulant use and
less
backwashing of the filter is required
- Water use can be decreased, because of an increase in water quality
- Ozone oxidizes organic and inorganic matter in the water, without the formation of unwanted
byproducts,
such as chloramines (which cause a chlorine-scent)
- Chlorine scents can be fully diminished by ozone application
- Ozone is a more powerful oxidant and disinfectant than chlorine. Certain chlorine-resistant
pathogens cannot
multiply in water that is treated with ozone

Halogens like Chlorine are extremely toxic. Smell your skin even one hour after you are out of
a chlorinated pool! In about one hour your body can absorb up to one litre of pool water, with
the disolved chlorine and other chemicals. Can be easily verified by going on a scale before
and after swimming. Also if you dont change your water every year, you are swimming in an unbelieveable chemical soup. Water evaporates, chemicals do not, they concentrate over the years.





> Bottling Applications
- Bottle rinsing
- Cap sanitation
- Bottle sanitation
- Bottle filling


> Laundries
- Water savings
- Energy savings
- Reduced production time
- Linen savings


2 Comments:

At 12:44 AM, Blogger tiku said...

nice research done chum....keep me updated of ur works on ozone technology...is it effective against h1n1?

 
At 4:54 AM, Blogger Vishal said...

This is excellent work gives good insight on what can be done with ozone

 

Post a Comment

<< Home